History of South Africa (1497-1900)
Bartolomeu Dias reaches beyond Mossel Bay, named Angra dos Vaqueiros - Bay of Cowherds - with reference to Khoikhoi herders seen on shore.
Vasco da Gama rounds the Cape on way to India.
Antonio de Saldanha lands at Table Bay.
06 April 1652
- The first white settlers, led by Jan van Riebeeck, arrive in Table Bay onboard 3 Dutch ships.
- The Cape Colony is governed by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) until 1795.
Asian convicts brought to Cape as slaves.
Catharina Anthonis, a slave born in Bengal, was the first slave to be freed, because Jan Woutersz wanted to marry her.
21 February 1657
Settlement in Liesbeeck Valley (now Rondebosch area) by first 9 free white burghers (citizens).
Slaves imported from Madagascar and Java.
28 March 1658
38 male slaves and 37 female slaves from Angola, arrive in Table Bay aboard the Amersfoort.
228 slaves from West African coast arrive in Table Bay aboard the Hasselt. About 80 are shipped to Batavia.
Armed Hottentots (Khoikhoi) resist Dutch seizure of land
- Almond hedge planted to protect the settlement from the Khoikhoi.
- First horses arrive at the Cape from Batavia, circa 1660s.
- Jan van Riebeeck leaves the Cape for Malacca.
- Zacharias Wagenaar appointed Governor of the Cape on 09 May.
Outposts set up at Saldanha Bay and Hottentots-Holland.
The first Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded at the Cape and the first minister appointed, Rev. J. van Arkel.
- Building of The Castle (or Fort) started in Cape Town.
- Settlements in Saldanha Bay and Vishoek (Fish Hoek).
- First Calvinist church built in Cape Town.
- Cornelis van Qualbergen appointed Governor of the Cape in October.
Indians arrive at the Cape.
Jakob Borghorst appointed Governor of the Cape in June.
Pieter Hackius appointed Governor of the Cape.
01 December 1671
Coenraad van Breitenbach appointed Governor of the Cape.
23 March 1672
Albert van Breugel appointed Governor of the Cape.
02 October 1672
Yobrand Godske appointed Governor of the Cape.
Second Dutch-Khoikhoi War
02 January 1676
Johan Bax (van Herenthals) appointed Governor of the Cape.
29 June 1678
Hendrik Crulax appointed Governor of the Cape.
Settlement of Hottentots-Holland.
14 October 1679
Simon van der Stel appointed Governor of the Cape.
Simon van der Stel expands the colony.
- Stellenbosch founded.
- Castle in Cape Town is completed.
- First farmers settle along the Eerste River.
- Simon van der Stel visits Namaqualand.
- Commissioner Hendrik van Reede (VOC) decrees that male slaves can buy their freedom for 100 guilders on reaching the age of 25 years, provided that they have been confirmed in the Dutch Reformed Church and can speak Dutch.
- The same conditions apply to female slaves, who can buy their freedom at age 22 years.
Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Stellenbosch (seceded from Cape Town).
Settlements along Berg River (Drakenstein, Paarl).
April 1688 – 1689
Approximately 200 French Huguenots arrive at the Cape, settle mostly in Fransch Hoek.
First trekboers start moving.
Dutch Reformed Church congregations founded in Drakenstein and Paarl.
Settlement of Wagenmaker's Vallei (Wellington).
11 February 1699
Willem Adriaan van der Stel appointed Governor of the Cape.
Settlement in Land van Waveren (Tulbagh).
Cattle raids by Khoisan (Hottentots and San) against Dutch.
03 June 1707
Johan Cornelis d'Ableing appointed Governor of the Cape.
01 February 1708
Louis van Assenburg appointed Governor of the Cape.
28 December 1711
Willem Helot appointed Governor of the Cape.
Smallpox epidemic in the Cape, introduced from India, decimates Khoikhoi, kills many Whites.
28 March 1714
Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes appointed Governor of the Cape.
System of freehold title to land ends, by which time about 400 farms granted.
Groot Constantia is built.
08 September 1724
Jan de la Fontaine (provisional) appointed Governor of the Cape.
25 February 1727
Pieter Gysbert Noot appointed Governor of the Cape.
28 April 1728
Jan de la Fontaine (provisional) appointed Governor of the Cape.
08 March 1730
Jan de la Fontaine appointed Governor of the Cape.
The VOC imports slaves from Mozambique and Zanzibar. First trekboers reach George area, trek inland into Langkloof.
- Annual rental of a leningplaats doubled to 24 rixdollars. - Quitrent system of land tenure introduced.
Great Brak River proclaimed eastern boundary of Cape.
14 November 1736
Adriaan van Kervel appointed Governor of the Cape.
20 September 1737
Daniel van den Henghel appointed Governor of the Cape.
01 April 1739
Hendrik Swellengrebel appointed Governor of the Cape. He was the first South African-born Governor. His father was a Russian from Moscow, in the service of the VOC, and his mother was Johanna Cruse, born in South Africa.
- First recorded trekboer loan farms in Roggeveld.
- Dutch Reformed Church congregations founded in Roodezand (Tulbagh).
Dutch Reformed Church congregations founded in Swartland (Malmesbury).
Swellendam is founded.
30 March 1751
Ryk Tulbagh appointed Governor of the Cape.
First recorded San resistance to Roggeveld area trekboers.
- Smallpox epidemic in the Cape.
- Foundation stone of Old Town House in Cape Town is laid.
Jansz Coetse, Klaas Barends and others cross Gariep
112 slaves from Madagascar arrive in Table Bay on board the Meermin.
Khoisan resistance to trekboer occupation.
Clashes between trekboers and Xhosa begin as trekkers cross the Gamtoos River in the east
12 August 1774
Joachim Ammema, Baron van Plettenberg, appointed Governor of the Cape.
Commando mounted against San, 503 killed and 241 captured.
Colonial boundary extended to Buffels, Zak and Fish Rivers
Hendrik Jacob Wikar and Robert Jacob Gordon meet Khoikhoi, Geisiqua and Tswana groups along lower and middle Gariep which Gordon names Orange River in honour of the Netherlands Stadtholder
First Frontier War between Xhosa and whites.
First issue of paper rixdollars.
Le Vaillant and Van Reenen travel in Namaqualand and north of Orange River
14 February 1785
Cornelis Jacob van de Graaff appointed Governor of the Cape.
Merino sheep imported from Holland.
Second Frontier War between Xhosa and Whites.
29 June 1791
Johannes Isaac Rhenius appointed Governor of the Cape.
02 September 1791
Abraham Josias Sluysken appointed the last Governor of the Cape under VOC rule.
Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Graaff-Reinet.
Morovian Mission founded at Genadendal.
Xhosa at Prieska
16 September 1795-1802
British occupy Cape on behalf of William of Orange. J. H. Craig appointed Governor of the Cape. Slaves outnumber European settlers.
- Boer revolt against the VOC takes place in Swellendam and Graaff-Reinet.
- On 29 January the Boer republic of Graaff-Reinet was declared, but on 12 November the British took the town back by force.
- On 18 June the Boer republic of Swellendam was declared under Hermanus Steyn, but the British took it back later.
Pieter Pienaar murdered by Jager Afrikaner at Hantam.
23 May 1797
Duke of MaCartney appointed Governor of the Cape.
- First Post Office.
- Liquidation of Dutch East India Company.
- First mosque in southern Africa established in Dorp Street by Tuan Guru.
- Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded at Swellendam.
Eastern Cape Khoikhoi revolt
22 November 1798
Lt.-Gov. Dundas appointed Governor of the Cape.
- 18 December, Sir G. Young appointed Governor of the Cape.
- First London Missionary Society (LMS) station at Zak River.
- Fort Frederick built in Algoa Bay by British soldiers.
- Third Frontier War between the Xhosa and Whites.
- First printing press in Cape Town.
- Government Gazette started.
- Official expedition of Truter, Somerville, Barrow and Daniell - with missionaries Jan Matthys Kok and William Edwards - reaches Dithakong
- William Anderson establishes mission at Aakaap and Klaarwater (later Griquatown).
- Khoisan spelling book printed by LMS.
- 20 April, Lt.-Gov. Dundas appointed Governor of the Cape.
01 March 1803 – January 1806
Batavian Republic rules the Cape.
Heinrich Lichtenstein travels to Dithakong.
10 January 1805
British retake the Cape following outbreak of Napoleonic Wars.
10 January 1806
Sir David Baird appointed Governor of the Cape.
- LMS station at Warmbad, Great Namaqualand.
- First regular inland postal service.
British ban slave trade, importation of slaves to the Cape ends.
17 January 1807
Lt.-Gen. Grey appointed Governor of the Cape.
22 May 1807
Duke of Caledon appointed Governor of the Cape.
- Gola's Xhosa community settles at Pramberg.
- Severe drought in eastern frontier.
William John Burchell travels in the interior.
- Caledon and George founded.
- Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Caledon.
- Regular circuit courts introduced.
05 July 1811
Lt.-Gen. Grey appointed Governor of the Cape.
06 September 1811
Sir John Francis Cradock appointed Governor of the Cape.
Fourth Frontier War between Xhosa and Whites.
Cradock and Grahamstown founded.
- Rev. John Campbell conducts mission inspection in the interior.
- Adam Kok's people assert the name Griqua.
- Court proceedings opened to the public.
- Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in George (seceded from Swellendam).
02 November 1813
Lord Charles Henry Somerset appointed Governor of the Cape.
- The Cape Colony is formally ceded to Britain.
- Mail packet service started between Britain and the Cape.
Slagter's Nek Rebellion.
- Missionaries Read and Hamilton - with Hendriks, Kakkerlak and Sedras - establish Kuruman Mission (LMS).
- Wesleyan Mission in Leliefontein.
- Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Uitenhage.
- Approximately 200 Scottish artisan immigrants brought to the Cape by Benjamin Moodie.
- Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Cradock.
- Settlement of land beyond Orange River.
- Beaufort West founded.
- Fifth Frontier War between Xhosa and Whites.
- Grahamstown attacked.
Dutch Reformed Church congregations founded in Beaufort West and Somerset West.
- James Read produces first book in SeTswana.
- Andries Waterboer elected Griqua Captain at Griquatown.
- Port Elizabeth named by Sir Rufane Donkin.
- Worcester founded.
Approximately 5000 British settlers arrive in Port Elizabeth as part of the 1820 Settlers immigration scheme, they are settled in the Eastern Cape.
Robert Moffat, in Namaqualand from 1817, moves to Kuruman.
English becomes the official language of the Cape Colony.
01 July 1823
Lewis Broadbent born to the wife of the Methodist missionary Samuel Broadbent at Leeudoringstad, 16km from Wolmaranstad. Lewis later became a missionary to India.
- Battle of Dithakong - MaNthatisi repulsed by Tlhaping with help from Griquas.
- Tswana to north and east heavily disrupted by Difaqane raids.
Approximately 146 Irish settlers brought to the Cape by John Ingram.
- Bergenaar Rebellion.
- George Thompson travels inland, names Augrabies Falls the Cataract of King George.
- Construction of road through Fransch Hoek Pass.
- First Synod of the Dutch Reformed Church.
- Mission station at Lovedale founded.
- First lighthouse opened.
- The Zulu king, Shaka, "grants, makes over and sells" Port Natal to Farewell and his companions.
- Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Somerset East.
- First steamship in Table Bay.
- Depreciated rixdollar converted into British sterling.
- The Anglican St. Mary's Collegiate Church started in Port Elizabeth.
- The Jubilee Park Cemetery in Uitenhage in use circa 1825.
- Adam Kok II establishes Philippolis Griqua Captaincy.
- Dutch Reformed Church congregations founded in Clanwilliam, Colesberg, Durbanville and Tijgerberg.
- Circa 1828, the Union Chapel (LMS - i.e. Congregational) in Port Elizabeth is founded, records start in 1831.
- St. Mary's Cemetery started in Port Elizabeth circa 1828.
- Moffat's printing press transported to Kuruman by ox-wagon.
- Full civil privileges granted to Roman Catholics in the Cape.
- Colesberg founded.
- Road over Sir Lowry's Pass opened.
- Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Albany.
- First publication of De Zuid Afrikaan (ons Land).
- First issue of Grahamstown Journal.
Dutch Reformed Church parish in Piquetberg (Piketberg) founded.
Approximately 750 juveniles brought to the Cape as apprentices.
21 December 1834 – September 1835
Sixth Frontier War between Xhosa and Whites.
- Berlin Mission Society establishes station at Bethulie.
- The Anglican St. John's Church is built in Bathurst, but its burial records go back to 1823.
- King William's Town founded.
- Slaves officially freed but apprenticed for next 4 years.
- Kommissie treks from Cape begins.
- Port Natal renamed Durban.
Andrew Smith and artist Charles Davidson Bell travel in the interior.
Louis Trichardt, Hans van Rensburg and Andries Potgieter trek north.
- James Alexander travels through Namaqualand.
- The Great Trek has reached the Transvaal and the Free State areas.
- Potgieter's trekkers defeat Ndebele at the Battle of Vegkop.
- Piet Retief publishes his Manifesto.
- Andries Potgieter and Piet Uys, helped by Rolong and Griqua tribes, defeat Ndebele at Mosega.
- Louis Trichardt arrives in Lourenco Marques.
- Seperate administrative districts granted to Port Elizabeth, Cradock and Colesburg.
28 March 1837
Piet Retief and his followers leave the Cape Colony.
Piet Retief and his people are murdered by Dingaan's soldiers at Dingaan's's kraal and Weenen.
16 December 1838
Battle of Blood River fought between Zulus and Boers.
- Russell Road (Hyman's Kloof) Cemetery established in Port Elizabeth.
- Pietermaritzburg founded.
- Boers establish Republiek of Natalia.
22 December 1838
Dutch Reformed Church parishes founded in Bredasdorp and Riversdale.
04 December 1838
The British occupy Port Natal.
- Expansion of commercial wool farmers in Karoo transforms colonial economy.
- Pedi migrate to work on Cape farms.
- The Anglican St. Katherine's Church is founded in Uitenhage.
- Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Wellington.
16 October 1840
- Potchefstroom, Winburg and Natalia unifies as a single Boer republic.
- Missionary David Livingstone arrives in South Africa - proceeds to Kuruman before journeying through Central Africa.
- Circa 1841, the Methodist Church founded in Port Elizabeth.
- Trekkers council set up in Potchefstroom.
- Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Prince Albert.
- Dick King's horse ride from Durban to Grahamstown.
War between the British and the Boers in Natal.
- Natal annexed as a British Colony.
- Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Richmond.
Boers from Natal settle at Potchefstroom, after crossing the Drakensberg Mountains.
- Land ownership is changed from leasehold to free hold.
- Victoria West established.
- Hendrik Potgieter settles at Delagoa Bay.
- Dutch Reformed Church parish founded at Mossel Bay (seceded from George).
- Ohrigstad founded.
- Natal becomes autonomous district of Cape Colony.
- Battle of Zwartkoppies.
- Berlin Mission Society establishes station at Pniel.
- Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Burgersdorp.
- Bloemfontein founded.
Approximately 103 settlers arrive in Port Elizabeth from war-torn Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Seventh Frontier War between Xhosa and Whites, this war was also known as the War of the Axe.
- Colonial boundary extended to Orange River.
- Rhenish Missionary Christoph Alheit moves to Schietfontein (Carnarvon).
- Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Calvinia.
- Opening of Montagu Pass.
- Sugar cane plantations started in Natal.
- East London founded.
- Districts of Victoria East and British Kaffraria annexed as part of the Cape Colony.
23 March 1848
Approximately 163 German settlers, known as the Bergthiel Settlers, arrive in Natal.
- Boers cross the Vaal River.
- Orange River Sovereignty established.
- Battle of Boomplaats.
- Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Napier.
- Soutpansberg (later Schoemansdal) founded.
Circa 1849 the first Jewish Congregation founded in Cape Town.
The Byrne Settlers arrive in Natal.
First Afrikaans book written by an imam (Muslim prayer leader) of slave descent.
- Wesleyan Settlers arrive in Natal.
- Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Namaqualand.
Eighth Frontier War.
Sugar first produced from cane in Natal.
Johannes Cornelis Goosen founded Prince Alfred's Hamlet.
- The Transvaal Republic established on 17 January, after the signing of the Sand River Convention.
- Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Middelburg.
- The New Church (Congregational / Presbyterian) established in Port Elizabeth.
- Copper mining begins at Springbokfontein.
- Wreck of the Birkenhead.
- 16 March, reconciliation between Andries Pretorius and Hendrik Potgieter.
- Hopetown established.
- Nicholas Waterboer succeeds as Griqua Captain.
- Settlement of Queenstown and Seymour.
- Union Steamship Line founded.
- Orange Free State Republic established on 23 February after the signing of the Bloemfontein Convention.
- Dutch Reformed Church parishes established in Montagu and Queenstown.
- First elected Cape Colony Parliament.
- Sir George Grey, Portuguese-born Brit, appointed Governor of the Cape.
- Boers defeat Ndebele at Makapansgat.
- Pretoria founded.
- 20 Irish miners arrive to work in the Namaqualand copper mines.
- The Anglican St. Paul's Church in Port Elizabeth founded.
- Approximately 3000 Crimean War veterans (German Legionnaires) settled in Kaffraria, later joined by 2700 German civilians.
- Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Murraysburg.
- Natal becomes a separate colony.
- 17 December, founding of the Boer republic of Lydenburg.
Self-destruction of Xhosa tribe by cattle-killing.
Approximately 700 juveniles arrive from Holland.
- Moffat completes Old Testament Bible translation into SeTswana.
- Xhosa enter Karoo.
- Approximately 157 Irish women arrive on the ship Lady Kennaway, settle in British Kaffraria.
- First Legislative Council in Natal.
- First mail contract with Union Steamship Company for regular mail service between Britain and South Africa.
- 06 January, induction of M.W. Pretorius, first President of the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek.
Assisted immigration schemes bring about 12 000 settlers.
- Circa 1858, Jewish congregation founded in Port Elizabeth.
- The Anglican Holy Trinity Church built in Port Elizabeth.
- War between Orange Free State and Basuto tribe.
- Dopper Church leaves the Dutch Reformed Church.
- First railway in South Africa commenced in Cape Colony.
- Boer republics north of Vaal unite as South African Republic with Pretoria as the capital.
- Indians arrive in Natal to work on sugar cane farms as indentured labourers. Between 1860-1911 about 152 000 Indians arrive and about 50% stay.
- First telegraph service in South Africa, between Cape Town and Simonstown.
- Start of penny post in Cape Town.
- Work begins on Table Bay Docks.
- The Catholic St. Augustine's Church established in Port Elizabeth.
- Circa 1860, the first Baptist Church started in Port Elizabeth.
Griqua trek under Adam Kok III from Philippolis to Nomansland.
The Hill Presbyterian Church started in Port Elizabeth.
North End Cemetery started in Port Elizabeth.
St. George's Cemetery established in Port Elizabeth.
Albania Settlement Scheme.
Ostriches first domesticated.
- Economic depression throughout South Africa.
- War between Orange Free State and Basutos.
India officially stops sending Indian labourers to Natal.
21.25 carat diamond found near Hopetown.
Korana War along Orange River.
- Railway from Port Nolloth to O'Kiep.
- Star of South Africa diamond discovered.
- Gold and diamond rush starts.
The Anglican St. Peter's Church started in Port Elizabeth.
Opening of Cape Town Docks.
- Diamonds found at New Rush (renamed Kimberley in 1873).
- Britain annexes the diamond fields of Kimberley and Griqua West.
- Griqua claim to Diamond Fields recognised, Andries Waterboer seeks British protection.
- Diamond mining stimulates migrant labour, two thirds of Black workers come from Limpopo valley.
- Gold discovered in Eastern Transvaal.
- First mail from Cape Town to the diamond fields.
- Griqualand West established as a British colony.
- Gold discovered in Lydenburg district of Transvaal.
Approximately 3300 men, women and children arrive as agricultural settlers or labourers for public works.
- College founded at Stellenbosch (later Victoria College, today University of Stellenbosch).
- Railway line opened from Port Elizabeth to Uitenhage.
- Black Flag Rebellion by White diggers at Kimberley.
- Genootskap vir Regte Afrikaners (Association for True Afrikaners) formed at the home of Gideon Malherbe in Paarl.
First railway line in Natal.
- Native Locations for Tswana established in Griqualand West.
- 12 April, Shepstone annexes the ZAR for Britain.
- 10 May, Paul Kruger leads a deputation to Britain to demand the freedom of the ZAR.
- Ninth Frontier War.
Griqualand West Rebellion, Korana War and Tswana Rebellion.
- Walvis Bay proclaimed British territory.
- Telegraph service between Natal and Transvaal.
- 14 May, Paul Kruger leads second deputation to Britain to demand the freedom of the ZAR.
01 September 1879
Anglo-Zulu War starts, battles at Isandhlwana, Rorke's Drift and Ulundi.
- Griqualand West annexed to Cape Colony.
- First Legislative Council in Transvaal.
- Formation of De Beers Company.
- Formation of the Afrikander Bond.
- First Anglo-Boer War, Boers defeat Britain.
- Battle of Laing's Nek, 28 January 1881.
- Battle of Majuba, 27 February 1881.
- 21 March, declaration of peace with Britain at the house of O'Neill in northern Natal.
- Britain recognizes South African Republic (ZAR).
Tswana-Kora wars with White mercenary involvement.
Stellaland and Goshen republics declared.
- Abraham September (freed slave) begins Orange River irrigation.
- Approximately 4645 settlers arrive.
- South End Cemetery in Port Elizabeth started.
- Use of Dutch recognised in Cape Parliament.
- 09 May, induction of Paul Kruger as President of ZAR.
Germans occupy South West Africa and German East Africa.
Rev. Gwayi Tyamzashe, last black man to hold a claim in Kimberley mines, loses his claim.
Warren takes over Stellaland and Goshen, establishes Crown Colony of British Bechuanaland and Bechuanaland Protectorate.
- The Anglican St. Cuthbert's Church built in Port Elizabeth.
- Barberton goldfields opened.
- 16 August, formation of the Republic of Vryheid in Natal.
Railway line opened from Cape to Kimberley.
Discovery of gold bearing rock at Ferreira's Camp, later to become Johannesburg.
- C.J. Rhodes amalgamates Kimberley mining companies as De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd..
- “Rudd concession” signed by Lobengula.
- British South Africa Company founded.
- Pioneer Column of Rhodes's British South Africa Company departs from Kimberley to occupy Rhodesia.
- Railway line reaches from Cape to Bloemfontein.
- First railway line in Transvaal, from Johannesburg to Boksburg.
Railway line to Johannesburg completed with connections from Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and East London.
02 November 1894
Railway line between Lourenco Marques and Johannesburg opened.
Glen Grey Act passed in Cape to control African labour and land.
- 29 December, a force of about 500 men, under Jameson, raid into the Transvaal. It was resisted by the Boers and on 02 January 1896, Jameson surrendered at Doornkop.
- The Pretoria-Delagoa Bay railway line opened by the South African Republic.
16 December 1896
Railway line opened between Durban and Johannesburg.
Bechuanaland Campaign / Galeshewe's War begins at Phokwane and spreads to Langeberg.
- Zululand incorporated into Natal.
- Railway line opened between Cape Town and Bulawayo.
11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902
The Second Anglo-Boer War:
- 13 October 1899: Boers invade Natal.
- 14 October 1899: Sieges of Mafeking and Kimberley started.
- 20 October 1899: Battle of Talana.
- 21 October 1899: Battle of Elandslaagte.
- 30 October 1899: Battle of Lombard's Kop. Siege of Ladysmith started.
- 23 November 1899: Battle of Belmont.
- 25 November 1899: Battle of Graspan.
- 28 November 1899: Battle of Modder River.
- 10 December 1899: Battle of Stormberg.
- 11 December 1899: Battle of Magersfontein.
- 15 December 1899: Battle of Colenso. Battle of Dundee.
Imperial Penny Postage adopted by Cape Colony
- 06 January 1900: Boers attack Ladysmith.
- 23-24 January 1900: Battle of Spion Kop.
- 05 February 1900: Battle of Vaal Krantz.
- 15 February 1900: Relief of Kimberley.
- 28 February 1900: Ladysmith relieved.
- 07 March 1900: Battle of Poplar Grove.
- 13 March 1900: Bloemfontein captured.
- 11 June 1900: Battle of Diamond Hill.
Burning of farms (scorched earth) policy authorised in July / August.
Amalgamation of Union and Castle Steamship Lines.
- 31 May 1902: Peace of Vereeniging signed, ending Second Anglo-Boer War.
Sir Alfred Milner appointed Governor of the Cape Colony.